Neurosurgery is surgery of the nervous system, which includes the brain, spinal column, meninges, nerves and pituitary gland. Conditions treated with neurosurgery include: spinal cord trauma, head trauma or trauma to the peripheral nerves; intracerebral, interdepartmental, and intracellular haemorrhages; meningitis and other central nervous system infections, tumours, spinal disc herniation, cervical or lumbar spinal stenosis, hydrocephalus, cranial/peripheral nerve pain, advanced Parkinson's disease, vascular malformations, and certain types of chronic pain disorders, among others. Neurosurgery manages neurological conditions which may be traumatic, neoplastic, infective, congenital or degenerative conditions.
Neurosurgical procedures include microsurgery, minimally invasive endoscopic surgery, endovascular surgery, conventional surgery which often uses image guidance technologies, ventricular-peritoneal shunt insertion, surgery of the peripheral nervous system, spine surgery such as discectomy, and surgery for chronic pain and pain management. Post-operative care is a critical part of neurosurgery, and specialists in this area are mindful of pain following brain surgery, which can be significant, and other issues which affect recovery time, lengthen hospital stays and increase the risk of complications.