Paediatric Surgery is the surgical specialty concerned with providing surgical and medical care and treatment to paediatric patients, including neo nates, newborns, infants, children, and adolescents. It studies the embryology, anatomy, and pathophysiology of the fetus, infant, child and adolescent, including the organs, systems and conditions involved, and their structure and development. It incorporates knowledge of paediatric neonatology and anaesthesia and is mindful of pathophysiological disturbances related to children with surgical conditions. Paediatric surgery involves principles of surgical practice, including infection control, safety in the operating theatre, ethics, communication with families, and rehabilitation after surgery. Surgical procedures include elective and emergency procedures. They are performed for neonatal conditions, including correction and management of birth defects, trauma and burns, urological conditions, cancer, and other conditions and injuries affecting the abdomen, abdominal wall, genitalia, thoracic region, head and neck, skin and extremities. Paediatric surgeries include repair of umbilical hernia, circumcision, ear tube placement, oncological surgery, appendix removal, and management of trauma. Paediatric surgery is practiced in hospitals and private clinics. Services are provided by multi-disciplinary teams and include inpatient and acute emergency management, outpatient consultation and pre-, peri and post-operative care and rehabilitation.