Pathology encompasses very broad knowledge on the pathophysiology of health and disease, along with specialised knowledge of laboratory testing and operations. It bridges knowledge between clinical medicine and science and is considered the foundation of testing, treatment and patient care. Pathology studies the anatomical, biochemical and physiological processes of the human body, its mechanisms, and the conditions which lead to disease. It studies macroscopic pathology, histopathology (surgical pathology), cytopathology, serology, toxicology, chemistry and chemical pathology, haematology, biology and microbiology, immunopathology and molecular/genetic pathology. Pathology practice involves many diagnostic techniques, including examination of the patient, taking specimens of blood, tissue or fluids, and using other components of laboratory medicine to undertake tests and investigations which guide medical diagnosis and management. It seeks to use safe and accurate procedures which produce high-quality material and interpretation. Pathology recognises the diagnostic value of individual tests, while being aware of the limitations of investigations and knowledge. This field of medicine offers expert opinion to other specialty areas of medicine and science and makes contributions to pathology research and education. Pathologists either study General Pathology, or undertake training in a Pathology subspecialty area, including Anatomical pathology (including cytopathology), Chemical pathology, Haematology, Immunology, Microbiology, and Forensic pathology.